A novel, automated, low cost, 3-D printed microfluidic array was developed to detect DNA damage from metabolites of chemicals in environmental samples. The electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection platform incorporates layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled films of microsomal enzymes, DNA and an ECL-emitting ruthenium metallopolymer in ~10 nm deep microwells. Liquid samples are introduced into the array, metabolized by the human enzymes, products react with DNA if possible, and DNA damage is detected by ECL with a camera. Measurements of relative DNA damage by the array assess the genotoxic potential of the samples. The array analyses 3 samples simultaneously in 5 min. Measurement of cigarette and e-cigarette smoke extracts and polluted water samples was used to establish proof of concept. Potentially genotoxic reactions from e-cigarette vapor similar to smoke from conventional cigarettes were demonstrated. Untreated waste water showed a high genotoxic potential compared to negligible values for treated waste water from a pollution control treatment plant. Reactivity of chemicals known to produce high rates of metabolite-related DNA damage were measured and array results for environmental samples were expressed in terms of equivalent responses from these standards to assess severity of possible DNA damage. Genotoxic assessment of waste water samples during processing also highlighted future on-site monitoring applications.
Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, and James F. Rusling
ACS Sens., Just Accepted Manuscript
Publication Date (Web): April 21, 2017
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