[Lab on a chip] Rapid, label-free CD4 testing using a smartphone compatible device
The most recent guidelines have called for a significant shift towards viral load testing for HIV/AIDS management in developing countries; however point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing still remains an important component of disease staging in multiple developing countries. Advancements in micro/nanotechnologies and consumer electronics have paved the way for mobile healthcare technologies and the development of POC smartphone-based diagnostic assays for disease detection and treatment monitoring. Here, we report a simple, rapid (30 minutes) smartphone-based microfluidic chip for automated CD4 testing using a small volume (30 μL) of whole blood. The smartphone-based device includes an inexpensive (<$5) cell phone accessory and a functionalized disposable microfluidic device. We evaluated the performance of the device using spiked PBS samples and HIV-infected and uninfected whole blood, and compared the microfluidic chip results with the manual analysis and flow cytometry results. Through t-tests, Bland–Altman analyses, and regression tests, we have shown a good agreement between the smartphone-based test and the manual and FACS analysis for CD4 count. The presented technology could have a significant impact on HIV management in developing countries through providing a reliable and inexpensive POC CD4 testing.
Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy,a Hardik J. Pandya,a Mohamed Shehata Draz,a Manjyot Kaur Chug,a Magesh Sadasivam,a Shreya Kumar,a Behzad Etemad,bc Vinish Yogesh,a Mohammadali Safavieh,a Waseem Asghar,d Jonathan Z. Li,bc Athe M. Tsibris,bc Daniel R. Kuritzkesbc and Hadi Shafiee*ac Author affiliations * Corresponding authors a Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA E-mail: email@example.com b Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA c Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA d Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA