[Environmental Science and Technology] Single-cell real-time visualization and quantification of per
Bioaccumulation of perylene in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was visualized and quantified in real time with high sensitivity at high temporal resolution. For the first time, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy (SMFM) with a microfluidic flow chamber and temperature control has enabled us to record the dynamic process of perylene bioaccumulation in single bacterial cells and examine the cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Although with identical genomes, individual E. coli cells exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in perylene accumulation dynamics, as shown by the high coefficient of variation (C.V=1.40). This remarkable heterogeneity was exhibited only in live E. coli cells. However, the bioaccumulation of perylene in live and dead S. aureus cells showed similar patterns with a low degree of heterogeneity (C.V=0.36). We found that the efflux systems associated with Tol C played an essential role in perylene bioaccumulation in E. coli, which caused a significantly lower accumulation and a high cell-to-cell heterogeneity. In comparison with E. coli, the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus lacked an efficient efflux system against perylene. Therefore, perylene bioaccumulation in S. aureus was simply a passive diffusion process across the cell membrane.
Xin Jin, Xuejun Guo, Deshu Xu, Yanna Zhao, Xinghui Xia, and Fan Bai Environ. Sci. Technol., Just Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02070 Publication Date (Web): May 17, 2017 Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society