[Scientific Report] Dendritic Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles mediate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal C
Orchestration of bone repair processes requires crosstalk between different cell populations, including immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) as mediators of these interactions remain vastly unexplored. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of MSC recruitment by Dendritic Cells (DC), hypothesising that it would be mediated by EV. Primary human DC-secreted EV (DC-EV), isolated by ultracentrifugation, were characterized for their size, morphology and protein markers, indicating an enrichment in exosomes. DC-EV were readily internalized by human bone marrow-derived MSC, without impacting significantly their proliferation or influencing their osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, DC-EV significantly and dose-dependently promoted MSC recruitment across a transwell system and enhanced MSC migration in a microfluidic chemotaxis assay. DC-EV content was analysed by chemokine array, indicating the presence of chemotactic mediators. Osteopontin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were confirmed inside EV. In summary, DC-EV are naturally loaded with chemoattractants and can contribute to cell recruitment, thus inspiring the development of new tissue regeneration strategies.
Andreia M. Silva, Maria I. Almeida, José H. Teixeira, André F. Maia, George A. Calin, Mário A. Barbosa & Susana G. Santos
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 1667 (2017)