[Biomicrofluidics] Interplay of chemical and thermal gradient on bacterial migration in a diffusive
Living systems are constantly under different combinations of competing gradients of chemical, thermal, pH, and mechanical stresses allied. The present work is about competing chemical and thermal gradients imposed on E. coli in a diffusive stagnant microfluidic environment. The bacterial cells were exposed to opposing and aligned gradients of an attractant (1 mM sorbitol) or a repellant (1 mM NiSO4) and temperature. The effects of the repellant/attractant and temperature on migration behavior, migration rate, and initiation time for migration have been reported. It has been observed that under competing gradients of an attractant and temperature, the nutrient gradient (gradient generated by cells itself) initiates directed migration, which, in turn, is influenced by temperature through the metabolic rate. Exposure to competing gradients of an inhibitor and temperature leads to the imposed chemical gradient governing the directed cell migration. The cells under opposing gradients of the repellant and temperature have experienced the longest decision time (∼60 min). The conclusion is that in a competing chemical and thermal gradient environment in the range of experimental conditions used in the present work, the migration of E. coli is always initiated and governed by chemical gradients (either generated by the cells in situ or imposed upon externally), but the migration rate and percentage of migration of cells are influenced by temperature, shedding insights into the importance of such gradients in deciding collective dynamics of such cells in physiological conditions.
Nithya Murugesan1, Purbarun Dhar2, Tapobrata Panda1, and Sarit K. Das3,a) 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, India 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India a)Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: email@example.com.