[Sensors] Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay w
Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip–phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers.
Meili Dong 1,2, Jiandong Wu 2, Zimin Ma 2, Hagit Peretz-Soroka 2, Michael Zhang 3, Paul Komenda 3, Navdeep Tangri 3, Yong Liu 1,* , Claudio Rigatto 3,* and Francis Lin 2,4,5,6,* 1 Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada 3 Seven Oaks General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB R2V 3M3, Canada 4 Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada 5 Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada 6 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada * Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. Academic Editors: Stephane Evoy and Baris Fidan Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017 (This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Canada 2017)