[Patent] Cointegration of optical waveguides, microfluidics, and electronics on sapphire substrates
A method of forming a semiconductor structure includes forming a first optical waveguide and a second optical waveguide on a sapphire substrate. The first optical waveguide and the second optical waveguide each include a core portion of gallium nitride (GaN), and a cladding layer laterally surrounding the core portion. The cladding layer includes a material having a refractive index less than a refractive index of the sapphire substrate. The method further includes etching a portion of the cladding layer to form a microfluidic channel therein and forming a capping layer on a top surface of the first optical waveguide, the second optical waveguide and the microfluidic channel.
Publication number US9588289 B1 Publication type Grant Application number US 15/002,041 Publication date Mar 7, 2017 Filing date Jan 20, 2016 Priority date Jan 20, 2016 Inventors Yann A. N. Astier, Ning Li, Devendra K. Sadana, Joshua T. Smith, William T. SPRATT Original Assignee International Business Machines Corporation