[Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry] Unexpected differences between planar and column liquid chr
We report the results of experimental work focusing on host-guest supramolecular complex creation between macrocyclic compound (β-cyclodextrin) and 1-acenaphthenol enantiomers (racemic mixture) in liquid phase composed of 35% acetonitrile in water (v/v) at different temperatures ranging from 0 to 90 °C. Experimental setup involved several analytical protocols based on classical non-forced flow planar chromatography (RP-18 TLC plates), micro-TLC (RP-18 W HPTLC plates), column chromatography (HPLC with C-18 and C-30 stationary phases), as well as UV-Vis spectrophotometry and optical microscopy. It has been found that under various planar chromatographic conditions (stationary plates type, chamber shape and volume, development mode, and saturation) non-typical retention properties (extremely high retention) of 1-acenaphthenol at subambient temperatures can be observed. To our knowledge, reported experimental results are in opposition to currently described retention models based on column chromatographic investigation of host-guest complexes (where in case of strong interaction of given analyte with macrocyclic mobile phases additive, which itself is non strongly retarded by stationary phase—close to the retention of dead volume marker, the retention of target compounds is shortened at low temperatures). To explain this TLC phenomenon that may have in our opinion a number of practical applications, especially for selective high throughput separation involving microchromatographic and/or microfluidic devices as well fractionation and extraction protocols (using, e.g., bar extraction systems), several experiments were conducted focusing on (i) acenaphthenol chromatography under different instrumental conditions, (ii) cyclodextrin retention measured as analyte or mobile phase additive, (iii) plate development time under different mobile phases and temperature settings, (iv) various column chromatographic conditions including C-30 and two C-18 stationary phases, (v) UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and (vi) microscopy inspection of precipitated CD-acenaphthenol crystals. Analysis of collected data has revealed that the most probable reasons for TLC retention behavior of 1-acenaphthenol under β-cyclodextrin additive conditions can be associated with (i) solubility changes of created host-guest complex, (ii) kinetics of solid complex precipitation, and (iii) differences in analysis time between planar and column chromatography. Because precipitation phenomenon may have a massive impact on analytes quantification involving macrocycles as the mobile phase additives, our previously reported data concerning a number of low-molecular compounds (mainly steroids and non steroidal endocrine disrupting chemicals) using HPLC methodology based on binary mobile phases without and with β-cyclodextrin and its hydroxypropyl derivative were re-examined and results discussed. Considering these data and the whole data set reported presently, the enhanced model of chromatographic retention driven by host-guest interaction was proposed.
Hatsuichi Ohta, Elżbieta Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Piaskowski, Aleksandra Kaleniecka, Lucyna Lewandowska, Michał J. Baran, Mariusz Wojnicz, Kiyokatsu Jinno, Yoshihiro Saito, Paweł K. Zarzycki Open AccessResearch Paper First Online: 24 March 2017 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-017-0313-y Cite this article as: Ohta, H., Włodarczyk, E., Piaskowski, K. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2017). doi:10.1007/s00216-017-0313-y