[Biomaterials] Biomaterials innovation for next generation ex vivo immune tissue engineering
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues. The complexity of such animal models limits our ability to modulate the parameters that control the process of immune cell development, differentiation, and immunomodulation. Engineering functional, living immune tissues using biomaterials can grant researchers the ability to reproduce immunological events with tunable parameters for more rapid development of immunotherapeutics, cell-based therapy, and enhancing our understanding of fundamental biology as well as improving efforts in regenerative medicine. Here the author provides his review and perspective on the bioengineering of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, and biomaterials innovation needed for the construction of these immune organs in tissue culture plates and on-chip.
Ankur Singh a, b, , a Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA b Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Received 24 January 2017, Revised 8 March 2017, Accepted 10 March 2017, Available online 15 March 2017 Show less http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.03.015