[Journal of Chromatography A] Aqueous and non-aqueous microchip electrophoresis with on-chip electro
This work describes aqueous and non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis on thiol-ene-based microfluidic separation devices that feature fully integrated and sharp electrospray ionization (ESI) emitters. The chip fabrication is based on simple and low-cost replica-molding of thiol-ene polymers under standard laboratory conditions. The mechanical rigidity and the stability of the materials against organic solvents, acids and bases could be tuned by adjusting the respective stoichiometric ratio of the thiol and allyl (“ene”) monomers, which allowed us to carry out electrophoresis separation in both aqueous and non-aqueous (methanol- and ethanol-based) background electrolytes. The stability of the ESI signal was generally ≤10% RSD for all emitters. The respective migration time repeatabilities in aqueous and non-aqueous background electrolytes were below 3 and 14% RSD (n = 4-6, with internal standard). The analytical performance of the developed thiol-ene microdevices was shown in mass spectrometry (MS) based analysis of peptides, proteins, and small molecules. The theoretical plate numbers were the highest (1.2-2.4 × 104 m−1) in ethanol-based background electrolytes. The ionization efficiency also increased under non-aqueous conditions compared to aqueous background electrolytes. The results show that replica-molding of thiol-enes is a feasible approach for producing ESI microdevices that perform in a stable manner in both aqueous and non-aqueous electrophoresis.
Sari Tähkäa, , Ashkan Bonabia, , Ville Jokinenb, , Tiina Sikanena, , a Faculty of Pharmacy, Drug Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5E, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo, Finland Received 5 January 2017, Revised 3 March 2017, Accepted 10 March 2017, Available online 14 March 2017 Show less http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.03.018